Sookmyung Institute for Multicultural Studies
[ Special Issue ]
OMNES: The Journal of Multicultural Society - Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.1-40
ISSN: 2093-5498 (Print)
Print publication date Jan 2017
Received 07 Dec 2016 Revised 08 Dec 2016 Accepted 13 Jan 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15685/omnes.2017.01.7.2.1

Similarities and Differences in East Asian Confucian Culture: A Comparative Analysis

Min-Hua Huang ; Shu-Hsien Chang
Director of the Center for East Asia Democratic Studies and an Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science in National Taiwan University mhhuang5103@ntu.edu.tw
M.I.C.E. Marketing Management in National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism

Abstract

In East Asia, Confucianism has long been regarded as the cultural basis for social norms and political order. In the past literature, many scholars have argued that the special nature of Confucian culture is an important factor hindering the modernization of East Asian countries. However, rapid modernization in the past two decades has shown that East Asia is not limited in its modernization by its cultural features. In this paper, the authors explore how the effects of modernization and democratization affect Confucian values in East Asian. Using data from the latest wave of the Asian Barometer Survey data in nine East and Southeast Asian countries, the authors find that modernization and democratization might attenuate Confucianism, but this trend is actually transformative instead of linear, meaning that Confucianism may be transformed into a post-modern culture that offers spiritual well-being and continues to guide the future progress of human civilization.

Keywords:

Confucianism, modernization, social structure, cultural evolution, socioeconomic change

References

  • Berthrong, J. H., (2014), Confucian formulas for peace: Harmony, Society, 51(6), p645-655, [https://doi.org/10.1007/s12115-014-9838-2] .
  • Blagov, S., (2001), Caodaism: Vietnamese traditionalism and its leap into modernity, New York, NY, Nova Science Publishers.
  • Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W., (1992), Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods, Newbury Park, CA, Sage.
  • Cheng, C. Y., (1972), On yi as a universal principle of specific application in Confucian morality, Philosophy East and West, 22(3), p269-280, [https://doi.org/10.2307/1397676] .
  • Chen, I., (1908), The book of filial duty, London, John Murray.
  • Chen, L. F., (1986), The Confucian way: A new and systematic study of 'the four books', S.-S. Liu Trans.) (, London, Routledge.
  • Chen, R. J., (2009), To learn English by reading world proverbs, Volume 1, Taipei, Derwei.
  • El Amine, L., (2015), Classical Confucian political thought: A new interpretation, Princeton, NJ: Oxford, Princeton University Press.
  • Fukuyama, F., (1995), Confucianism and democracy, Journal of Democracy, 6(2), p20-33, [https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.1995.0029] .
  • He, B. G., (2010), Four models of the relationships between Confucianism and democracy, Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 37, p18-33, [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6253.2009.01561.x] .
  • Home Office, Government of UK, (2014), Country information and guidance: Vietnam: Religious minority groups, December 2014, Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/389940/CIG.Vietnam.Religious_Minority_Groups.v1.0.pdf.
  • Huntington, S. P., (1997), After twenty years: The future of the third wave, Journal of Democracy, 8(4), p3-12, [https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.1997.0059] .
  • Huntington, S. P., (1998), The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order, Charlesbourg, Quebec, Simon & Schuster, [https://doi.org/10.2307/1252166] .
  • Inglehart, R., (1977), The silent revolution: Changing values and political styles among western publics, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, [https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400869589] .
  • Inglehart, R., & Baker, W. E., (2000), Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values, American Sociological Review, 65(1), p19-51, [https://doi.org/10.2307/2657288] .
  • Jargalsaikhan, M., (2011), Anti-Chinese attitudes in post-Communist Mongolia?: The lingering negative schemas of the past, Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs), University of British Columbia, [https://doi.org/10.14288/1.0078410] .
  • Kahn, H., (1979), World economic development: 1979 and beyond, Boulder, CO, Westview Press.
  • Kao, M. S., (1984), The formation of East Asian education system, Taipei, National Institute for Compilation and Translation.
  • Lai, C., (2009), Tradition and modernity: A humanist view, Leiden, Brill.
  • Lerner, D., (1958), The passing of traditional society: Modernizing the Middle East, New York, NY, Free Press.
  • Li, C. Y., (1997), Confucian value and democratic value, Journal of Value Inquiry, 31, p183-193.
  • Liu, H. F., (2006), Chinese imperial examination’s influence on Japan, Korea and Vietnam, Academic Monthly, 38(12), p136-142.
  • MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M., (1996), Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling, Psychological Methods, 1, p130-149, [https://doi.org/10.1037//1082-989x.1.2.130] .
  • Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O., (2010), Mplus: User's suide, Los Angeles, CA, Muthen & Muthen.
  • Pye, L., (1985), Asian power and politics: The cultural dimensions of authority, Cambridge, MA, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, [https://doi.org/10.2307/20042651] .
  • Reischauer, E. O., (1974), The sinic world in perspective, Foreign Affairs, 52(2), p341-348, [https://doi.org/10.2307/20038053] .
  • Shi, T. J., (2014), The cultural logic of politics in mainland China and Taiwan, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, [https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511996474] .
  • Shin, D. C., (2012), Confucianism and democratization, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press.
  • Tu, W. M., (1994), Embodying the universe: A note on Confucian self-realization, In R. T. Ames et al. (Eds.), Self as person in Asian theory and practice, Albany, NY, State University of New York Press.
  • Tu, W. M. (Ed.), (1996), Confucian traditions in East Asian modernity: Moral education and economic culture in Japan and the four minidragons, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
  • Worsman, R., (2012), Tradition, modernity, and the Confucian revival: An introduction and literature review of new Confucian activism, “History Honors Papers.” Paper 14, Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.conncoll.edu/histhp/14.
  • Yang, C. K., (1991), Religion in Chinese society: A study of contemporary social functions of religion and some of their historical factors, Prospect Heights, IL, Waveland Press.
  • Yang, X., (2015), Virtue ethics as political philosophy: The structure of ethical theory in early Chinese philosophy, In L. Besser-Jones, & M. Slote (Eds.), The Routledge companion to virtue ethics, p471-490, New York, NY, Cambridge University Press.
  • Zhang, W. B., (1999), Confucianism and modernization: Industrialization and democratization of the Confucian regions, London, Palgrave Macmillan.

Biographical Note

Min-Hua Huang received the Ph. D. in Political Science from the University of Michigan in 2004. He is currently the Director of the Center for East Asia Democratic Studies and an Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science in National Taiwan University. His main research interests include democratization, public opinion research, political culture, and political methodology. E-mail: mhhuang5103@ntu.edu.tw

Shu-Hsien Chang received the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Electronics from the University of Liverpool in 1993. He is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Hospitality and M.I.C.E. Marketing Management in National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism. His main research interests include research method, public opinion research, public policy, human resource management, and convention planning and management.